Structure difference between electric bicycles and normal bicycles

Electric bicycles seems more and more popular now, almost 60% of bicycles you have seen on the street are powered by electricity.Today, we will share your some of the basic electric bicycle structures compared with normal bicycles, so all electric bicycle will became very simple to you from now on.Most electric bicycles are consist of below parts:

electric bicycle


Charger is a device to charge power to the battery, generally divided into two-stage charging mode and three-stage charging mode. 2-stage charging mode: firstly constant voltage charging, the charging current gradually reduced with the battery voltage increases , once battery capcity added to a certain extent, the battery voltage will rise to the set value, then converted to trickle charge stage. Three-stage charge mode: at the beginning of charging,firstly charging with constant current quickly and add energy to the battery; once the battery voltage rising a lot then converted to constant voltage charging stage, the battery energy will be added slowly and the battery voltage continues to rise in this stage ; once battery voltage reaches the termination voltage value, it will turned to trickle charge stage to maintain the battery and supply the battery self-discharge current.


Battery will provide electricity to the electric bicycles, electric bicycles mainly use lead-acid battery. However,nickel-metal hydride batteries and lithium ion batteries have also been use in a lot of light folding electric bicycles.


Controller is the component to control the motor speed,also core of electric bicycles electric system, with undervoltage, current limiting or overcurrent protection functions. Intelligent controller also has a variety of cycling mode and bicycle electrical components self checking function. The controller is the core component of electric bicycles energy management and all kinds of control signal processing .

Handle bar

Handle bar is the signal input components for controller. The acceleration signal is the drive signal for the motor rotation of the electric bicycle. Brake signal is the signal tell the electric bicycle when to brakes, during this period internal electronic circuit will output an electrical signal to the controller,once controller received this signal, it will cut off the power supply to the motor, so as to achieve brake power off function.

Booster sensor

The booster sensor is a device that detects the pedaling force of the electric bicycles in the assisting mode. Controller will drive electric bicycle rotation based on human and power automatic matching with the boost sensor. At present, the most popular booster sensor is the axial double-side torque sensor, which is characterized of the ability to collect the left and right pedaling force, and adopt non-contact electromagnetic signal acquisition mode, thereby enhancing the accuracy of signal acquisition and reliability.


Motor is the most important parts of an electric bicycle, the motor basic decided the performance and grade of an electric bicycle. Motor used by electric bicycles are mostly high-performance rare earth permanent magnet motor, which is divided into high speed brush + gear motor, low speed brush motor and low speed brushless motor etc.

Lamps and instruments

Lighting, instrument parts is a combination to provide lighting and display the status of the electric bicycle. Instrument generally provides battery voltage display, bicycle speed display, riding status display, lamp status display functions. Intelligent instrument can also display the bicycle’s fault situation of electrical components.

Common structure

Most electric bikes use a hub type motor to directly drive the rotation of front or rear wheels. These hub wheel type motor drive the bicycle speed up to 20km/h according to different bicycle wheel sizes.Although appearance of these electric bicycles and battery installation location are not the same, but its driving and control principle are the same. This type of electric bicycle is the mainstream of electric bicycle products.

Special structure of electric bicycles

A small number of electric bicycle drive with non hub wheel type motor. These electric bicycles use side hung or columnar motor,friction tire motor etc. electric bicycles driven with this type of motor, the bicycle weight will be reduced a lot,however the motor efficiency is lower than the hub wheel type. In the case of the same battery capacity, these non hub wheel motor electric bicycles driving mileage is usually shorter by 5% -10% compared with hub wheel type motor electric bicycles.